Tuesday, October 17, 2017




Poetry is closely linked with music and sound. To fully understand poetry One needs to have some knowledge of Music and sound effects as well. It equally applies to Musicians who also need to understand feelings and the mood of the words that they are singing . In a way Poetry and Music are closely interconnected . If Poetry has inherent Music , music is poetry presented through sound effects .

In Modern kashmiri poetry , Dina Nath Naadim has created enormous sound effects in his poems .Using these patterns , he was consciously and continuously freeing kashmiri poetry from its centuries old Bondage of Meter , Rhyme and generic monotony and at the same time adding grace , Beauty and Artistic excitement to it .

Through word sounds , he made sustained attempts to infuse musical effects in kashmiri poetry . These sound effects have imparted Inertia, Vitality , Flow, Movement and quite often a strange internal Rhyme to his poetry .As a skilled craftsman , he has made good use of what is known as consonance, Dissonance , Alliteration and Onomatopoeia in Poetry .

This illustrious accomplishment of sound effects by Naadim warrants a close scrutiny and for this achievement , Naadim has possibly none as his rival in Modern kashmiri poetry . Alas ! There has been no serious attempt to study the syntactical patterns that Nadim devised in kashmiri Poetry . These patterns enhanced the unmatched Diction in his Poetic work..

In his early poems “Nov Son’th or New spring “, written in 1946 , he uses sound of Birds and moving wind to create poetic resonance . Words like “Koo Koo “ of Koel and “ Hoo Hoo “ of the spring season’s light wind have been used in the opening lines of the poem to create Poetic exhilaration and reverberation .Again in his poem "Quami Yakjehti" or " National Integration "  Naadim  uses bird sounds.

I quote:

" jaana-vaaruv  mutcharav Ton'th .Piyoo  Piyoo ya Tiriv Tiriv,  Goo too too ya chiriv chiriv , Aalam Aalam sonthaai son' th"
" The birds open their beaks to sing  Piyoo Piyoo or Tiriv Tiriv.They sing Goo goo goo or Chiriv Chiriv. Spring season comes to stay all over the world"

In his Poem” Dal Beath Baeth” or “Along the Banks of Dal Lake” written in 1961 he again uses words like “ shee shee “ to describe speeding breeze . Again he used words “ Tschee Tschee “ to describe tossing waves arising from of waters of Dal Lake.

In his Poem Tamie doh ( That Day ) written in 1971. Naadim uses the ticking sound of a wall clock as a forceful sound effect in his opening line .Then in his poem Chaer Katha ( Foolish talk ) , He uses the galloping of a horse as sound effect in the poem ( Tadaakh Ta Padaakh Tadaakh Ta Padaakh ), The breaking sound of wooden doors and windows too has been conveyed in this poem written in ( Daarie Ta Burr Pheatt Braen Braen Braen Braen ) .

The sound of water laden clouds has been superbly described by him in his poem "Paan Tchaadar" ( Water laden cloud ) " I quote ,

"Gurr Gurr Garaar Gurr Garar Garar , Jhar Jhar Jharaar Jharaar Jharar , Tar Tar Taraar Tar Taraar Tarar Sar Sar Saraar Sar Saraar Sarar "..

In his poem Maut ( Death ) , Naadim brings in melancholic sound effects . i quote ,

" Tak tak Taabun tar Tam tar tar -- Shar Shaka Shaapun Shar Shum Shar Shar "
In his poem Qaumi Yakjahti ( national Integration ) , Naadim uses sound of birds to create sound effects in his verse. I quote
" Piyoo Piyoo Ya Tiriv Tiriv,Goo Goo Ya Chiriv Chiriv "

In His poem Zalaer zaal (Cob web ), Naadim uses sound words to convey his disenchantment . I quote ,

"Oh Oh Oh Oh, Oh Oh Oh Oh , Oh Oh Soruyii gardi Gubaara .".


In his Poem “Shuhul Kull “ Nadim uses the magic of word sound exactly the way Russian Poet Mayakovsky was famous for . Repetitive usage of a single word to carry forward a sentiment forcefully. “Barag Barag” , “ Laenjein Laenjein “ Vathar Vathar “. Again the contrast technique of Mayakovasky is clearly visible in this poem. Naadim uses contrasts together to put impact . “ Prein Ta Chheit ( Shining bright and dull )“, “Zug Ta Shaam Rang ( White and black ) “ “ Yetiek Faraeing ( Residents and outsiders ) “. Nadim also favours usage of similes that form a hallmark of Mayakovsky’s poetry. Mayakovasky was known for pushing comparisons and similes to breaking point in his poems. And it is now quite clear that Naadim had read enough of Mayakovasky . Like Mayakovasky , Some poems of Naadim are meant to be read aloud for the sound words that create a rhythm of a drum beat or a march cadence. This style is used in poetry to create Auditory images . And Like Mayakovasky, Naadim has also excelled in this task . The influence of Mayakovasky’s poems “Our March” and “Call To Account” is visible on Naadim’s poem a “Naara e Shabaab and “Naara e Inquilab’ . To substantiate my point , i quote some lines from Naadim's poem "Jangbaaz Khabardaar" or " Beware  O war monger " ..

" Thahar Laeni bronh ma pakh, fasaad fitana keanna Hyaath, Ya bum ta gun machine Hyaath _Hiroshima ya chhuyi na  yath karakh tche Lurpaar vuchh, Grezaan chhu Aabshaar vuchh ,nishaat shaalmaar vuchh,  wattan yi myon chhuyi bedaar navbahaar vaar vuchh, iraada vustvaar vuchh, Tulav tyongal ta naar vuchh."

" Stop, Don't cross your limits. Don't come here to fight  , create  troubles and for settling scores. Don't come with your bombs, guns and weaponry. This is not Hiroshima that you can raise to dust.Look, our water falls are roaring. our nishat and shalimaar gardens  are awake. Awake lies this beloved land of mine .Look how beautiful is our new spring season over here and our rock like determination. Stop else we can also arise with flames and fire .."

For Naadim , Many a critics may consider it as a result of turbulent happenings in subcontinent as the poems were written around 1947. But I am focusing on the overall impact of the throw of word sounds . These word sounds are certainly a Mayakovasky influence on Naadim.


( Autar Mota )

This write up appeared on my Facebook Page  sometime back. Noted scholar  Dr Shashi Shekhar Toshakhani in his comments to my face book post wrote as under  ,

" Autar Mota' Ji's post is a highly appreciative attempt to stimulate discussion on the need for a reappraisal of Dina Nath Naadim's poetry at both ideological and structural levels.  Despite having passed away nearly three decades back, Naadim continues to be the most important modern Kashmiri poet. The comparison with Mayakovsky is important as well as relevant as both the poets display remarkable similarities so far as characteristic peculiarities of their poetry are concerned. They also have much in common in their approach to the questions of the function of poetry and the role of a poet. I too had made a reference to Mayakovsky's influence on Naadim in my  Book “Kashmiri Sahitya ka Itihas “ , published way back in 1985. What enhances the value of Autar Mota Ji's write-up is the details he has given, including the translations of some of Mayakovsky's representative poems and his photographs. Both Myakovsky and Dina Nath Naadim were passionately committed to the ideology of Marxism and sought to free their poetry from the hold of centuries-old conventions, stereotypes, and stylizations inherited from traditional verse to give expression to their new thoughts. Regarding poetry and political action as inclusive they produced what can be described as a heady mix of poetry and politics. It was this that made their poetic readings draw tumultuous ovation from the crowds who thronged to listen to them. Nadim, like Mayakovsky, verbalized his thoughts through a new language and a new idiom. His innovatory experimentation was not merely of a technical nature but indicative of a new way of looking at the contemporary human situation. His choice of free verse as a medium of expression was a basic requirement for answering the challenges of the shift in sensibility which he himself had brought about in Kashmiri poetry. This proved to be a turning point in the history of Kashmiri poetry. In Hindi, Nirala was the first to write in free verse as far back as 1923, to be followed by Sumitra Nandan Pant . In fact, this was an important characteristic of avant-garde poetry throughout the world in the early decades of the twentieth century. In Kashmiri, poetry had always been directed more at the listener than at the reader. Naadim's use of blank verse created a bridge that connected the two. Autar Mota Ji has also pointed to the musical effects created by Naadim in his poems by employing alliteration, consonance, internal rhyme and other poetic devices. In fact, these devices, particularly internal rhyme, have throughout been the main characteristics of Kashmiri lyrical poetry. What distinguishes Naadim is that he brought into play the inner music and acoustic values of Kashmiri words, which combined with his imaginative use of images taken from the day-to-day life of the common folk, created a tremendous effect on the minds of the people. While doing so, Naadim stretched the strengths and potentialities of the Kashmiri language to their farthest limits. His strength as a poet lay in the "unexpected dynamics of words and rhythms", to use the words of the noted Malayalam poet K. Sachidanandan.”

 CHINAR SHADE by Autarmota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.5 India License.
Based on a work at http:\\autarmota.blogspot.com\.

Saturday, September 30, 2017


This is work of pure fiction. Any resemblance with any person , group ,  society or  incident could be a mere coincidence . This work of fiction is aimed to  convey the degradation in  Human values that is sweeping  our  world at large. 

                         THE PUSH INTO THE RIVER 
                                                                       (Autar Mota)
‘Listen attentively. I am sending my family to a safer place as I feel insecure living in this part of the city with my family . There is threat to my life because of my official duties. I have been advised to shift to a secured zone immediately and live in an atmosphere of security. I shall not be living in this house any more. I want you to be the caretaker of this house till things normalize. You need not spend the nights in this house, but do come here everyday and see to it that this lawn is maintained and that everything is okay.  Also, look for the letters from the post office and the courier service. I am expecting some journals and  letters. If any such mail is delivered, give me a ring from  the landline telephone which is inside. Keep these keys with you. I will retain one set of keys with me.  And I shall pay you one thousand and five hundred rupees a month for this job. Fine!’

Okay, sir. Don’t worry.  It is my responsibility now,’ said the caretaker.

I had the last look at my house before asking   my   driver to move. I had shifted to the New Security Zone created for the government officials.

One lazy Sunday afternoon, while I  was  sitting in the lawn of  my   Official quarters and     reading  a  newspaper, the  Guards on Duty informed me that someone wanted to see me. I desired  to know the identity of the  person and the purpose of his visit. I was informed that the person was the  caretaker of my house and that he had some private work with me.

‘Is everything fine? Sit down and tell me what brings you  here this moment.’
 ‘Sir, your house is fine. No worry on that front. A tragedy struck me.’

‘What happened? What tragedy?’

 ‘Sir, my son drowned in the river. He was a young boy of  14 years. I am ruined.’

‘That is a real tragedy. I can understand your feelings. So sad!’

I dug out two five hundred rupee notes from my pocket and handed them over to the caretaker. 

‘Keep this small amount. This is nothing.  My sympathies are with you. Have courage and faith. Everything will be fine.’ 

He accepted the money reluctantly but added,

 ‘Sir, I want to say something. I need help. I was unwilling  to come to you but many people told me that  I should seek your help."

‘What help? Please tell me.’

 ‘Sir! Sir!  It looks so odd but then you know my poverty. Sir !’
‘Tell me plainly.’

‘Sir, I was told by many people that you can arrange  some government  assistance  for me. Many people are getting compensation,  Monetary assistance  and government help. That is why I came to you.’

‘Look here, I don’t tell lies on such serious and tragic occasions. Since the boy fell into the river accidently, seeking  Government relief or  compensation  has neither  moral nor legal justification. Who told you all this?’

I dug out two  five hundred rupee notes more  from my pocket and handed them over to him. He got up to leave.

‘Sir, please keep one thing in mind. I am a poor man.’

The sun had hid itself in clouds that had been  gathering up over the sky. There appeared a sudden change in weather .  I went  inside  and asked the servant to prepare a cup of tea.
After that day, the caretaker kept visiting my office repeatedly. Sometimes he stepped inside the office room; sometimes he met me at the entry gate and sometimes he stopped my driver when I was about to leave for my duties. His visits not only annoyed  but  disturbed me  as well. 

‘He is determined to seek something of great value from me. I will refer him to  some other person who can easily say a convincing and firm  NO to him,’ I thought.

I would meet officers during our weekly  review meetings. Most of us were friendly and helpful to each other as we faced common problems in turbulent days. I shared this problem with one top officer connected with the implementation of law and order in the insurgency ravaged place. I felt relieved. But to my surprise the caretaker stopped visiting me. And whenever he telephoned me, he did not mention his son’s drowning.  As days passed , I forgot the issue altogether.

One day while  I was  returning from the office, I saw the caretaker driving a new motor bicycle.  Surprised, I asked my driver  as to whether he had seen who was driving the motor bicycle. 

‘Sir, why do you test me? You know it all. You have done it.’
‘What have I done?’ 

‘He got compensation in lieu of the drowning  incident of his son. It was through your intervention that his    compensation case was registered. He got a sum of rupees 2 lakhs recently. Didn’t he tell you all this?’

His words shocked and surprised me. I had never said so to any officer nor recommended any compensation for him.  In my heart I also felt a little happy that the tragedy which I tried to compensate by mere two thousand rupees was now adequately compensated. But what intrigued me was how  my  name got linked with it. I was seriously puzzled.

As days passed I forgot this incident. Uncertainty of life ruled our minds like a dictator those days. There were many other pressing things to remember like the  family affairs , welfare of ailing parents , education of  children and official meeting schedules. I had forgotten my house as well. The caretaker’s issue crept in when  he visited  or telephoned me.
And one day the guards  outside my quarters informed me that I had a guest.  Since it was the caretaker of my house, I asked the security guards to let him in. This time he  had come in a Taxi and brought a young boy with him. This young boy was carried inside with the help of the  Taxi  driver and was made to sit on a chair. Once the boy was comfortable, the Taxi  driver left the quarters and waited outside on the road. 

‘Sir, he is my second son. This poor boy is polio stricken. He cannot walk. Nor can he use his hands. Sir, this is my biggest worry in life. I shall not be always  there for him. He needs to live in this world and for that he needs to earn something.’

‘I agree with all what you say. I am distressed to  find that this young boy can neither use his hands nor  legs. Very unfortunate!’

I took out  three five hundred rupee notes from my wallet .
‘Keep this money. This is for the boy. I am sorry. Nothing can be done by me in this case. And please let me know as to what you think about me. I do not run this government. I have no powers to employ people. And then who told you to put this boy to discomfort by carrying him all the way to this place? See, he cannot sit comfortably in that chair. And after all if he seeks employment, he should be able to work.  He cannot walk. He cannot stand on his legs.  He cannot use his hands. How do you expect me to arrange a  job for him? Who is the person who misguides you?’

Holding the three currency notes on his hand, the caretaker looked towards me and said, 

‘Sir, anything can be done if you put a word. Many people go to office and sit. They don’t work at all.  After finishing sitting in the chair there they come back. Nowadays the  final aim is to get the monthly salary. Who cares what you do in the office? Sir, please help this poor man.’ 

‘I am sorry. I can do nothing. And listen, please do not take him to other officers who happen to be my friends. Don’t ever mention my name  me at any place.’

The caretaker called the Taxi driver inside and sought his help to carry the boy back into the vehicle.  I came up to the door to see him off. After making the boy sit in the vehicle, he turned to me and said:

 ‘Sir! Sir! Keep this poor man in mind. God shall keep your family happy.’


‘How  will he live when I am gone? Please think about that, sir.’

‘I have told you very clearly.  I shall not promise what I am not capable of doing. You must listen to it once and for all.’
The caretaker came a little closer to me and said:

 ‘Okay, sir. Now tell me please….. in case I   push this boy too   into the river, shall I get your  help  in another  compensation case? I am a poor man. Don’t misunderstand me.”

 I went into my  room. While drawing the window curtains, I thought of going to   the bed. I wanted to  hide myself in a quilt and sleep  in the darkness of the room. Outside, it looked like evening with dark clouds all over the sky.

( Autar Mota )

Creative Commons LicenseCHINAR SHADE by Autarmota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.5 India License.
Based on a work at http:\\autarmota.blogspot.com\.